Why did the Osaka Siege occur?

After Toyotomi Hideyoshi died in 1598, the Battle of Sekigahara took place just two years later, and Tokugawa Ieyasu won the battle and became the Conquering General in 8th year of Keicho. Traditionally, it was believed that the Edo period began on this day, and that Toyotomi Hideyori became a feudal lord who ruled over the three provinces of Settsu, Kawachi, and Izumi under the Tokugawa shogunate. However, in recent years, research has progressed rapidly and the true nature of the Toyotomi family during the Hideyori era has become clear.

Osaka Unlocking the mysterious door of history

The Osaka Siege: Unlocking the mysterious door of history – After Toyotomi Hideyoshi died on August 18, 1598, conflicts within the Toyotomi government intensified, and on September 15, 1598, Sekigahara A battle broke out between the eastern army led by Tokugawa Ieyasu and the western army led by Ishida Mitsunari. Tokugawa Ieyasu, who won this battle, was appointed Seii Taishogun on February 12, 1988, and opened a shogunate in Edo. However, Hideyoshi’s orphaned son, Toyotomi Hideyori, was still alive and well with his mother Yodo-dono at Osaka Castle, and ruled with authority that surpassed that of the Tokugawa family. The final decisive battle between the two great powers, the Toyotomi family and the Tokugawa family, was the “Osaka no Jin” and the last major battle of the Sengoku period, followed by the “Osaka Winter Jin” from October to December 1997. The following year, in May 1920, the “Osaka Summer Siege” occurred, and Osaka Castle fell on May 7, 2016, and the following day, Hideyori and Yodo-dono committed suicide, resulting in the demise of the Toyotomi family.


In 1600, Tokugawa Ieyasu won the Battle of Sekigahara, and in 1600 he was appointed Seii Taishogun and established the Edo shogunate, and in 1600 he handed over the post of shogun to Hidetada. On the other hand, Hideyori, the orphan of Toyotomi Hideyoshi, lived in Osaka Castle, and he maintained a firm position as someone who was different from other feudal lords. In order for the Tokugawa clan to continue to rule the country in the future, it was absolutely necessary to eliminate the power of the Toyotomi clan, and the trigger for this was the Bell Mei Incident at Hokoji Temple in Kyoto. was. In July 1614, the Tokugawa faction wrote the inscription on the bell of Hoko-ji Temple, which was rebuilt by Toyotomi Hideyori, saying that the words “National Peace and Peace” and “Prince and Servant’s Comfort” were meant to tear down the character of Ieyasu and enjoy Toyotomi as a prince. , Katsumoto Katagiri was dispatched from Osaka to Sunpu, where Ieyasu was, as a messenger to question the Toyotomi side and provide an excuse. In the end, Katsumoto was unable to obtain permission from Ieyasu, and proposed conditions for peace after returning to Osaka. The contents are: (1) Hideyori will leave Osaka Castle, (2) Hideyori will go to Edo to work, and (3) Yodo-dono will go down to Edo as a hostage. Toyotomi’s side considers Katsumoto a traitor, and fearing for his safety, Katsumoto leaves Osaka Castle. In preparation for the battle, large quantities of food and rice were brought to Osaka Castle, and many ronin were also employed.

Osaka winter camp and Fukui domain

In October 1614, Ieyasu, in response to disturbing movements by the Toyotomi side, ordered all the feudal lords to go to war, and the Osaka Winter Campaign began. In mid-November, more than 200,000 Tokugawa forces besieged Osaka Castle, where 105,000 soldiers were holed up. On December 4, the forces of the Fukui clan, led by the second lord Tadanao Matsudaira, along with soldiers from the Tokugawa clan, including the Kaga and Hikone clans, attacked Osaka Castle from the south. However, they retreated due to numerous casualties due to gunfire from the castle. Incidentally, the main force of the Fukui clan attacked the Sotai near the 8-chome exit, but some soldiers went to attack the Sanada Maru, a demaru that was said to have been built by Yukimura Sanada (Nobushige). It seems that. Knowing that Osaka Castle was strong, Ieyasu began bombarding it with guns and cannons, and ordered the Fukui clan to do so as well. As a result of the continuous attacks that upset Yodo-dono and other people in the castle, on the 21st of the same month, a peace treaty was reached between the Tokugawa side and the Toyotomi side, with the condition that the castle’s moat be filled in.

Osaka summer camp and Fukui domain

After the peace agreement was reached, Ieyasu pressed Hideyori to either release the imprisoned ronin or move to Yamatokoriyama. There was no way the Toyotomi side would accept this, and they once again plunged into the path of war. With most of the moat except for the main keep being filled in, Osaka Castle became almost a “naked castle,” and Toyotomi generals such as Yukimura (Nobushige) were forced to fight outside the castle. Ta. Additionally, there seems to have been a significant difference in military strength between the two camps, with the Tokugawa side having around 150,000 troops and the Toyotomi side having around 50,000. Under these circumstances, the Summer Siege broke out, and the final full-scale battle took place between the Tokugawa and Toyotomi forces on May 6th and 7th, 1615. In particular, during the battle on the 6th, the Fukui clan’s forces did not join the Tokugawa soldiers, and Ieyasu scolded them for taking a nap, forcing them to fight with all their might the next day. On May 7th, the final battle, the Fukui clan, which had advanced its troops to the front of Tennoji, clashed violently with Sanada’s army and others. Echizen’s outnumbered soldiers defeated Sanada’s army, and his vassal Nizaemon Nishio defeated the brave general Yukimura, riding on the momentum and becoming the first to capture Osaka Castle. The next day, on the 8th, Hideyori committed suicide along with his mother, Yodo-dono, and the Toyotomi family fell. Although many soldiers and common people died in this battle, the turbulent Sengoku period finally came to an end and the world ushered in an era of peace and peace.

Vassals and families who took part in the Osaka campaign

Hideyasu Yuki, the founder of the Fukui domain, had many vassals as befitting a feudal lord with a wealth of 680,000 koku, and these vassals would play an active role in the Osaka camp during Tadanao’s era. There is also a close-up look at the Yamagata family (Sasaharu) family, former vassals of the Sengoku daimyo Takeda family, and the Tagaya family and Yamakawa family, who were vassals of Hideyasu from the time they were lords of Yuki Castle and were known as the “Four Elders of Yuki.” I would like to come.

Background of Osaka no Jin

It seems that it was not a simple dichotomy between the Tokugawa clan and the Toyotomi clan, but had a much more complex character. Tokugawa Ieyasu became a shogun and controlled the Kanto and Tokai regions, but he was hardly able to advance into the western regions. In addition, Toyotomi Hideyori was not reduced to being a daimyo, but was recognized as a public official by many daimyo. As we all know, the dual court system of the Tokugawa and Toyotomi clans eventually collapsed. By winning the Osaka camp, the Tokugawa clan would not only become the only official government, but also control the economic power of the “Metropolitan area” based in Osaka, and transform into a national government that would expand into the western countries. .

What is Amagasaki’s role?

In this way, the Battle of Osaka came to be recognized as a battle of great significance. What role did Amagasaki, which was located so close to Osaka, play in the battle for Osaka? Yuji Sone argues that as the “metropolitan area” that was formed around Fushimi and Osaka continued to be developed even after Toyotomi Hideyoshi’s death, the importance of Amagasaki and Hyogo increased. For this reason, I commend the Tokugawa clan for using Amagasaki and Hyogo as bases and imposing an economic blockade on Osaka. The fact that Amagasaki became a base for economic blockade was already pointed out in the second volume of “Amagasaki City History”, which shows the foresight of “City History”. However, perhaps because the historical materials were not included in Volume 5 of City History, Amagasaki’s role has received little attention except for Mr. Sone. Therefore, I would like to reaffirm its role by presenting historical materials once again.

Masanaga Ikeda and the Tokugawa clan at Amagasaki Castle

First, Masanaga Ikeda was staying at Amagasaki Castle during the Osaka Winter Siege stage. According to the “Takebe family tree,” Masanaga’s grandfather Takamitsu was ordered by Toyotomi Hideyoshi to be the magistrate of Sanmankoku around Amagasaki, and his father Mitsushige also served as Toyotomi Hideyori’s close apprentice before taking over the position. It is said that Takamitsu served the Tokugawa clan after the Battle of Sekigahara, and Amagasaki came under the direct control of the Tokugawa clan, but there is no evidence of this. It appears that the impetus for subordination to the Tokugawa clan was not the Battle of Sekigahara, but rather the succession of the family headship by Masanaga in 1610.

Subordinated to the Tokugawa clan upon the change of head of the family

At this time, since Masanaga was only eight years old, Toyotomi Hideyori tried to confiscate the Takebe clan’s estate. Since his mother was the adopted daughter of Terumasa Ikeda, the lord of Himeji Castle, Masanaga was able to successfully inherit the headship of the family through the intercession of Terumasa’s father-in-law, Ieyasu Tokugawa. At this time, Ieyasu ordered Shigetoshi Ikeda (Yorihiro Shimoma), a vassal of Terumasa Ikeda, to be Masanaga’s guardian. Examples of families becoming subordinate to the Tokugawa clan due to this change of headship include Tadahiro Kato, the lord of Kumamoto Castle, Nagaaki Asano, the lord of Wakayama Castle, and Toshitsune Maeda, the lord of Kanazawa Castle.

The result of strategic enclosure

Furthermore, in the May 21st article of the 19th year of the Keicho era in the Sunpuki, it is written that “Ikeda□□Koshi (Shigetoshi) Maegami <Goreki (gloryholeswallow.com) Masa’s nephew, Sesshu/Amagasaki magistrate> etc.”, and the Tokugawa clan Three months before the Toyotomi clan was forced out of the Hokoji temple bell incident, Ieyasu appointed his guardian Shigetoshi Ikeda as Amagasaki magistrate. According to the “Shimoma (Ikeda) Family Tree,” Ieyasu secretly gave him a famous horse and clothes at this time. Chizuru Fukuda considered this to be an important part of the preparations he was making for the Osaka camp, and ordered Toshitaka Ikeda (Terumasa’s eldest son) to work with the Takebe clan to control the area from Amagasaki to Hyogo. It can be evaluated that the role was expected. According to the “Takebe Family Tree”, during the Osaka Winter Siege, Hideyori urged the Amagasaki Magistrate’s Office to transport military supplies to Osaka Castle, but Shigetoshi Ikeda and Takebe Yojuro of the Takebe clan, etc. He refuses this, saying that it was thanks to the Tokugawa clan that he was able to inherit the Takebe clan.

Yojuro Takebe was forgiven because he prioritized the defense of Amagasaki Castle.

Then, on October 13th, the Osaka Winter Camp began. According to an article dated October 16, 1987 in the Sunpuki, there was a clash in Sakai between 300 Toyotomi troops and 200 troops of Katagiri Katsumoto, who sided with the Tokugawa clan. The Sakai magistrate joined the Katagiri side, but Katsumoto’s vassals Tarao Hanzaemon and Maki Jiemon were killed in the battle. At this time, Katsumoto’s army fled to Amagasaki, but was chased by Toyotomi forces and routed. Yojuro Takebe was later blamed by Ieyasu for not supporting Katsumoto, but he was forgiven by explaining that he had prioritized the defense of Amagasaki Castle. However, according to the “Ikeda Family History Abbreviation,” on October 21, Toshitaka Ikeda’s vanguard, father and son Yuasa Yumano and Hanzaburo, fought in Amagasaki.

Osaka Winter Siege is not just a siege battle.

The Osaka Winter Siege only attracts attention to the siege battle at Osaka Castle, but it actually began in Sakai and Amagasaki. In “Namba Senki,” Sanada Nobushige and Goto Matabei of the Toyotomi side are said to have advocated a sortie to Uji or Seta, but since Amagasaki Castle was already secured by the Tokugawa side, such a sortie plan was too dangerous. After all, it can be said that this is nothing more than a myth.

How much importance did Ieyasu place on Amagasaki?

Katagiri Katsumoto, in response to Tokugawa Ieyasu’s wishes, ordered the three countries and Shodoshima to gather all their salt, firewood, and fish in Amagasaki. These three countries are Settsu, Kawachi, and Izumi, where Gen Katsu served as the state magistrate. Shodoshima was divided, and six lords sided with the Toyotomi side and packed up at Osaka Castle, while ten sided with the Tokugawa side and served in Amagasaki and Sakai. “City History” and Mr. Sone say that Ieyasu ordered supplies to be transported to Amagasaki and Sakai in response to the Tokugawa Ten, but Ieyasu’s own orders were limited to Amagasaki. You can see how much importance Ieyasu placed on Amagasaki.

Hidetada prohibits rice transportation to Osaka

In preparation for the summer campaign in Osaka, in early March 1615, Kyoto Shoshidai, Katsushige Itakura, conveyed information to Tokugawa Ieyasu that the Toyotomi side was proceeding with rearmament. Among them, hyote was collected in Hyogo by Osaka merchants and transported to Denpo at the mouth of the Yodogawa River. In response to these movements, Tokugawa Hidetada took steps to ban the transportation of rice to Osaka.

Amagasaki fulfills an economic function comparable to Kyoto and Fushimi

On March 14th, Hidetada’s Toshiyori-shu gathered all the feudal lords of western Japan at Edo Castle, and prohibited the transport of rice to Osaka in order to block the river and carry out a military attack. If they wish to exchange their rice for cash, they are instructed to do so at Kyoto or Fushimi, where the rice was transported via Amagasaki. In response to this order, Mr. Asano ( sheseducedme ) also took steps to voluntarily prohibit him from traveling from Kii to Osaka for business. In other words, Amagasaki’s economic status has remained strong since the Middle Ages, when it was the gateway to the capital Kyoto via the Kanzaki and Yodogawa rivers. Fushimi and Osaka, the newly created capitals of the Toyotomi clan, were added to this, and Amagasaki was a strategic location at the throat of these three capitals. The economic blockade was further tightened in April. Hidetada’s senior members, Tadayo Sakai, Toshikatsu Doi, and Shigenobu Ando, ​​ordered Katsushige Nabeshima, the lord of Saga Castle, to target supplies other than rice, forbidding them from transporting them to Osaka, and ordering them to be converted into cash in Amagasaki. Amagasaki had come to fulfill an economic function comparable to Kyoto and Fushimi amidst the military tension of the Osaka Siege.

Amagasaki contributed to the Tokugawa victory.

Amagasaki was a strategic location for transporting goods to Osaka, Kyoto, and Fushimi. For this reason, Toyotomi Hideyori of Osaka also planned to put it under direct control, but his hasty approach ended up encouraging the Takebe clan, the lord of Amagasaki Castle, to become subordinate to the Tokugawa clan. Ieyasu was able to use his second daughter’s wife, the Ikeda clan, to control Amagasaki and impose an economic blockade on Osaka, giving him an advantage over Osaka. And the Osaka no Jin itself helped Amagasaki grow as a place like Kyoto and Fushimi where rice and other goods could be exchanged for cash, raising its economic status. After the Osaka campaign, the Takebe clan was transferred to Hayashida in Harima, and the Toda clan Ujikane Tetsu of the Tokugawa Fudai entered Amagasaki. The premise behind this was that Amagasaki played a major economic role in the Osaka campaign for the Tokugawa side’s victory.

Toyotomi military commander

Yukimura Sanada (1567-1615)The story of a brave general who was invited by Toyotomi Hideyori to fight against the Echizen forces, died in battle, and charged into Ieyasu’s headquarters is well known.Daisuke Sanada (1602?~1615)He was Yukimura’s eldest son. He fought bravely with his father Yukimura, and on May 8, he committed suicide following Hideyori.Katsunaga Mori (???~1615)A brave general who was invited by Hideyori, he showed great strength by defeating Tokugawa troops at the Tennoji entrance.Harunaga Ohno (???~1615)A military commander who served Hideyori He committed suicide on May 8th following Hideyori.Osamu Ohno (???~1615)He was the younger brother of Harunaga Ohno, who served Hideyori. He fought bravely against the Tokugawa forces at Okayamaguchi.

Tokugawa military commander

Tokugawa Ieyasu (1542-1616)He was the first shogun of the Edo Shogunate and held real power as a great figure.Tokugawa Hidetada (1579-1632)The third son of Ieyasu, the second shogun of the Edo shogunate.Date Masamune (girlsdelta)The lord of Sendai (615,000 koku), his eldest daughter Gorohachihime is in the household of Tadateru Matsudaira.Ii Naotaka (1590-1659)Second lord of the Hikone domain (150,000 koku), second son of Naomasa Ii, one of the Four Heavenly Kings of Tokugawa, famous for his red armor.Honda Tadatomo (1582-1615)Lord of Otaki, Kazusa Province (50,000 koku) Second son of Honda Tadakatsu, one of the Four Heavenly Kings of Tokugawa, killed in battle with Mori troops.Todo Takatora (1556-1630) Lord of Tsu (FREE CAM GIRLS)The previous day, May 6, they won the battle of Yao and Wakae.Matsudaira Tadanao (1595-1650)2nd lord of Fukui domain (680,000 koku) Grandson of Ieyasu, fought and defeated the Sanada team and became the first to become Osaka Castle.Tadateru Matsudaira (1592-1683)Lord of Takada (450,000 koku), 6th son of Ieyasu.Maeda Toshitsune (1593-1658)Third lord of the Kaga domain (1,192,000 koku); ordered to spearhead the Okayama exit.Kuroda Nagamasa (1568-1623)Lord of Fukuoka Domain (502,000 koku) He was kept in Edo during the winter war.Yoshiaki Kato (1563-1631)Lord of Matsuyama (200,000 koku) He was kept in Edo during the winter campaign.

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